Minggu, 21 November 2010

UNIT 8 The Passive

Change the active to the passive by supplying the correct from of be.

1.   Tom opens the door .                           The door is opened by Tom.
2    Tom is opening the door.                      The door is being opened by Tom .
3.   Tom has opened the door.                    The door has been opened by Tom.
4.   Tom opened the door.                          The door was opened by Tom.
5.   Tom was opening the door.                   The door was being opened by Tom.
6.   Tom had opened the door.                    The door had been opened by Tom.
7.   Tom will open the door.                        The door will be opened by Tom.
8.   Tom is going to open the door.              The door is going to be opened by Tom.
9.   Tom will have opened the door.            The door will have been opened by Tom.

Change the active to the passive.

1.   Shakespeare wrote the play.                               That play was written by Shakespeare.
2.   Bill will invite Ann to the party.           
Ann will be invited to the party by Bill.
3.   Alex is preparing that report.                              
That report is being prepared by Alex.
4.   Waitresses and waiters serve customers.
      Customers are served by waiters.
5.   The teacher is going to explain the lesson.
      The lesson is going to be explained by the teacher.
6.   Shirley has suggested a new idea.
      A new idea has been suggested by Shirley.
7.   Two horses were pulling the farmer’s wagon.
      The farmer wagon was being pulled two horses.
8.   Kathy had returned the book the library.
      The book had been returned by Kathy.
9.   By this time tomorrow, the president will have the announcement.
      By this time tomorrow, the announcement will have been the president.
10. I didn’t write that note. Jim wrote it.
      That note was written by Jim not me.
11. Alice didn’t make that pie. Did Mrs. French make it?
      That pie had not been made by Alice. Did Mrs. French make it?
12. Does Prof. Jackson teach that course? I know that Prof. Adams doesn’t teach it.
      Was that course taught by Prof. Jackson? I know that Prof. Adams doesn’t teach it.
13. Mrs. Andrews hasn’t signed those papers yet. Has Mr. Andrews signed them yet?
      Those papers had not been signed by Mrs. Andrews. Has Mr. Andrews signed them yet?
14. Is Mr. Brown painting your house?
      Was your house being painted by Mr. Brown?
15. His tricks won’t fool me.
      I will not be fooled by his tricks.

 Change the active to passive if possible. Some verbs are intransitive and cannot be changed.

1.   A strange thing happened yesterday. (No change)
2.   Jackie scored the winning goal.           The winning goal was scored by Jackie.
3.   My cat died. (No change)
4.   I agree with Dr. Ikeda’s theory. (No change)
5.   Dr. Ikeda developed that theory.
      That theory was developed by Dr. Ikeda.
6.   Timmy dropped the cup.
      The cup was dropped by Timmy.
7.   The cup fell to the floor. (No change)
8.   The assistant manager interviewed me.
      I was interviewed by the assistant me.
9.   It rained hard yesterday. (No change)
10. A hurricane destroyed the small fishing village.
      The small fishing village was destroyed by a hurricane.
11. Dinosaurs existed millions of year ago. (No change)
12. A large vase stands in the corner of our front hallway. (No change)
13. The children seemed happy when they went to the zoo. (No change)
14. After class, one of the students always erases the chalkboard.
      The chalkboard is always erases by one of the student.
15. The solution to my problem speared to me in a dream (No change)

Why is the use of the passive appropriate in the following sentences? What would be the active equivalents of the passive sentences?
1.   My sweater was made in England.
      Ivan in England made my sweater.
2.   The new highway will be completed sometimes next month.
      Government will complete the new highway sometime next month.
3.   Language skill is taught in every school in the country.
Every school in the country teaches language skill.
4.   Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony was performed at the concert last night.
      The concert performed Beethoven Seventh Symphony last night.
5.   The world cup soccer games are being televised all over the world.
      All over the world is televising the world cup soccer games.
6.   This composition was written by Ali. That one was written by Yoko.
      Ali wrote this composition Yoko wrote that one.
7.   The Washington Monument is visited by hundreds of people every day.
      Hundreds of people visit the Washington Monument every day.
8.   The chief writing material of ancient times was papyrus. It was used in Egypt, Greece, and other Mediterranean lands.
      In Egypt, Greece, and other Mediterranean lands used papyrus.
9.   Parchment, another writing material that was widely used in ancient times, was made from the skin of animals such as sheep and goats. After the hair had been removed, the skins were stretched and rubbed smooth.
      Parchment, another writing material that was widely used in ancient times, from the skin of animal such as sheep and goats. After the hair had been removed, the skins were stretched and rubbed smooth.
10. Paper, the main writing material today, was invented by the Chinese.
      Chinese invented papers the main writing material today.

Change the following active sentences to passive sentences if possible. (Some of the verbs are intransitive and cannot be changed). Keep the same tense. Include the “by phrase” only if necessary.

1.   People grow corn in low a.                    Corn is grown in low a.
2.   Peter came here two months ago. (No change)
3.   Someone made this antique table in 1734.
      The antique table was made in 1734.
4.   An accident happened at the corner of … (No change)
5.   Someone stole my purse.
      My purse was stolen by someone.
6.   Someone was making the coffee when I walked into the kitchen.
      The coffee was being made when I walked into the kitchen.
7.   Translator has translated that book into many languages.
      That book had translated by translator into many languages.
8.   Jim’s daughter drew that picture. My son drew this picture.
      That picture was drawn by Jim’s daughter. This picture was drawn by my son.
9.   The judges will judge the applicants on the basis of their originality.
      Judge will be the applicants on the basis of their originality.
10. My sister’s plane will arrive at 10.35. (No change)
11. Is professor Rivers teaching that course this semester?
      Was that course being taught by professor Rivers this semester?
12. When did someone invent to radio?
      When radio had been invented?
13. The mail carrier had already delivered the mail by the time I left for school this morning.
      The mail had been already delivered by the mail carrier by the time I left for school this morning.
14. When is someone going to announce the results of the contest?
      When the result of the contest will be announced?
15. After the concert was over. Hundreds of fans mobbed the rock music star outside the theater.
      After the concert was over. The rock music star was mobbed by hundreds of fans outside the theater.
16. Ever since I arrived here., I have been living in the dormitory because someone told me that was cheaper to live there than in a apartment. (No change)
17. They are going to build the new hospital next year. They have already built the new elementary school.
      The new hospital is going to be built next year. They have already built the new elementary school.
18. If you expose a film to light while you are developing it, you will ruin the negatives. (No change)

Find the Indirect Object in each sentence, and make it the focus of attention by using it as the subject of a passive sentence. Use the “by phrase” only in necessary.
  1. Someone handed Ann a menu at the restaurant. (Indirect object – Ann) .
Ann was handed a menu at the restaurant.
  1. Indian University has awarded Peggy a scholarship.  
Peggy has been awarded a Scholarship by Indian University.
  1. Some company paid Fred three hundred dollars in consulting fees.  
Fred was paid three hundred dollars by some company in consulting fees.
  1. A Local advertising company has offered Maria a good job.  
Maria has been offered a good job by a local advertising company.
  1. They will send you a bill at the end of the month.  
You will have been sent a bill by them at the end of the month.
  1. Someone will give the starving people a week’s supply of rice as soon as the food supplies arrive in the famine-stricken area.  
The starving people will have been gave a week’s supply of rice as soon as the food supplies arrive in the famine-stricken are by someone.
EXERCISE 7: Change the active to the passive.
Example : someone built that house ten years ago.
Response : that house was built ten years ago.
  1. Someone invited you to a party. 
You were invited to a party.
  1. Someone wrote that book in 1987.  
That book was written in 1987.
  1. (Someone) wrote that book in 1987.  
That book was written in 1987.
  1. People grow rice in many countries.   
Rice is grown in many countries.
  1. The secretary is typing the letter.  
The letter is being typed.
  1. Someone is televising the game.   
The game is being televised.
  1. Teacher reading in the first grade.   
 Reading is being taught in the first grade.
  1. Someone has offered (you) a good job.   
You have been offered a good job.
  1. Someone told you to be here a ten.    
 You were told to be here a ten.
  1. Someone published that book in 1985.   
That book was published in 1985.
  1. Someone has sent (you) an invitation to a wedding.   
You have been sent an invitation to a wedding.
  1. Someone made that hat in Mexico. 
That hat was made by someone in Mexico.
  1. In the early 80s, Photographs of Mars (send) had been sent back to earth by unmanned space probes. From these photographs scientist have been able to make detailed maps of the surface of Mars.
  2. A network of lines (discover) was discovered on Mars. Astronomer (call) called these lines “channels”, but when the Italian word (translate) was translated into English, it became “canals”. As a result, some people thought the lines were waterways that (build) has been built by some unknown living creatures. We now know that the lines are not really canals. Canals (exist, not) are not existed on Mars.
Complete the sentences with the given words, active or passive.
  1. James should be told the news as soon as possible.( should + tell )
  2. Someone should told James the news immediately.(should + tell)
  3. James should have been told the news a long time ago.(should + tell)
  4. Meat must be kept in a refrigerator or it will spoil.(must + keep)
  5. You must kept meat in a refrigerator or it will spoil.(must + keep)
  6. We tried, but the window couldn’t have been opened it was painted shut.(couldn’t + open)
  7. I tried, but i couldn’t opened the window.(couldn’t + open)
  8. Good news! I may have been offered a job soon. I had an interview at an engineering firm yesterday.( may + offer)
  9. Chris has good news. The engineering firm where she had an interview yesterday may have offered her a job soon. ( may + offer)
  10. I hope Chris accepts our job offer, but i know she’s been having interviews with several companies. she may already been offered job by a competing firm before we made our offer.( may + already + offer *)
  11. A competing firm may already offered Chris a job before we made our offer.( may + already + offer *)

Selasa, 26 Oktober 2010


Used either SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE of the verbs in parentheses.
1.   I can’t afford that ring. It costs too much.
2.   Look. It is beginning to rain. Unfortunately, I don’t have my umbrella with me. Tom is lucky. He is wearing a raincoat.
3.    I don’t own an umbrella. I wear a waterproof hat on rainy days.
4.   Right now I am looking around the classroom. Yoko is writing in her book. Carlos is biting his pencil. Wan – Ning is scratching his head. Ahmed to be day dreaming, but perhaps he is thinking hard about verb tenses. What do you think Ahmed is doing?
5.   There’s a book on my desk, but it does not belong to me.
6.   Dennis is fixing the roof of his house today, and he needs some help. Can you help him?
7.   Barbara often tutors other students in her math assignment because she does not understand the material they are working on in their class this week.
8.   Right now I am looking at Janet. She looks angry. I wonder what’s the matter. She is having a frown on her face. She certainly does not have any fun right now.
 9.  A: Who is that woman how is standing next to the window?
      B: Which woman? Do you talk about the woman who is wearing the blue and gold dress?
      A: No, I am not talking about her. I mean the woman who is wearing the blue suit.
      B: Oh, I don’t know. I don’t recognize her.
10. A: Close your eyes. Now listen carefully. What do you hear? What am I doing?
      B: I believe you is rubbing the top if your desk whit your hand.
      A: Close, but not exactly right. Try again. Are you listening carefully?
      B: Aha! You are rubbing your hands together.
      A: Right!

1.   I had almost a car accident last night. I was driving down Washington Avenue when suddenly I saw a car in my lane. It was coming right at my car, I stepped on the brakes and swerved to the right. The other car was just missing my car by about an inch.
2.   Ten years ago, the government decided to begin a food program. At the time, many people in the rural areas of the country were starving due to several years of drought.
3.   IT was my first day of class, I finally found this right room. The room was already full of students. On one side of the room, students were busily talking to each other on Spanish. Other students were speaking Japanese, and some were conversing in Arabic. It sounded like the United Nations. Some of students, however, just sat quietly by themselves chose an empty seat in the last row and sat down. In a few minutes, the teacher was walking into the room and all the multilingual conversation stopped.
4.   A: Did you hear what she just said?
      B: No, I was not listening. I was thinking about something else.
5.   A: Why weren’t you at the meeting?
      B: I was waiting for an overseas call from my family.
6.   A: I’m sure you meet carol Jones at the party last night.
      B: I don’t remember her. What was she look alike?
7.   A: How did you break your warm?
      B: I slipped on the ice while. I was crossing the street in front of drom.

In the following, change the position of the expression of place.
1.   Sally is listening to music in her room.
      Sally is in room listening to music.
2.   Roy is taking a nap on the couch.
      Roy is on the couch taking a nap.
3.   Anita was attending a conference in England last month.
      Anita was in England last month attending a conference.
4.   The teacher is correcting papers at her desk.               
      The teacher is in desk correcting papers.
5.   Some of the students were late to class because they were playing soccer at the park.
      Some of students were late to class is in the park because they were playing soccer.

Use the SIMPLE PAST or the PRESENT PERFECT. In some sentences, either tense is possible but the meaning is different.
1.   I have not already attended any parties since I came here.
2.   Al went to a party at Sally’s apartment last Saturday night.
 3.  Bill arrived here there days ago.
4.   Bill has already been here since the 22nd.
5.   Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You have already missed many classes. You missed two classes just last week.
6.   Last January, I saw snow for the first time in my life.
7.   In her whole lifetime, Anna has never seen snow.
8.   I have known Greg Adams for ten years.
9.   So far this week, I have already two tests and a quiz.
10. Up to now, Professor Williams has already given our class five tests.

1.   How many books have you bought since the beginning of the (semester)?
      I have bought many books since the beginning of the semester.
2.   How many letters have you gotten so far this month/week?
      I haven’t gotten letters so far this month.
3.   How many letters have you written since the beginning of the month/ week?
      I have written four letters since the beginning of the month.
4.   How many questions have I asked so far?
      You have asked ten questions so far.
5. How many times have you flown in an airplane?
      I haven’t flown in an airplane since I was born.
6.   How many people have you met since you came here?
      I have met 50 people since you came here.

Use the SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PERFECT. Are there some blanks where either tense is possible?
1.   He had already been a newspaper reporter before he becomes a businessman.
2.   I felt a little better after I had taken the medicine.
3.   I was late the teacher had already given a quiz when I got into class.
4.   The anthropologist left the village when she had collected enough data.
5.   It was raining hard, but by the time class was over, the rain had stopped.
1.   Class had already begun by the time I got there, so I make, made quietly a seat in the back.
2.   Millions Of year ago had roamed the earth, but they extricated by the time humankind first had appeared.
3.   I had never seen any of Picasso’s paintings before I visited the art museum.
4.   I almost missed my plane. All of the other passengers had already boarded by the time I got there.
5.   Yesterday at a restaurant, I saw Pam Donnelly, an old friend of mine. I haven’t seen her in years. At first, I didn’t recognize her because she had already lost at least fifty pounds.   

Minggu, 03 Oktober 2010


Childhood Depression

“Nobody likes me” is a common complaint in middle childhood, when children tend to be popularity conscious. But when these words were addressed to a school principal by an 8-year old boy in Florida whose classmate had accused him of stealing from the teacher’s purse, it was a danger signal. The boy vowed that he would never return to school and he never did. Two years later, he hanged himself by a belt from the top rail of his bunk bed.
Fortunately, depressed children rarely go to such lengths, though suicide among young people is on the increase. How can we tell the difference between a harmless period of the “blues” (which we all experience at times) and a major affective disorder that is, a disorder of mood? The basic symptoms of an affective disorder are similar from childhood, by some features are age-specific 9dsm III-r, 1987).
          Friendlessness is only one sign of childhood depression. This disorder is also characterized by inability to have fun or to concentrate, and by and absence of normal emotional reactions. Depressed children are frequently tired, extremely active, or inactive. They walk very little, cry a great deal, have trouble concentrating, sleep to much or too little, lose their appetite, start doing poorly in school, look unhappy, complain of physical ailment, feel overwhelmingly guilty, suffer severe separation anxiety (which may take the form of the school phobia), or think often about death or suicide. Any four or five of these symptoms may support a diagnosis of depression, especially when they represent a marked change from the child’s usual pattern. Parents do not always recognize “minor” problems like sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, and irritability as signs of depression, but children themselves are often able to describe how they feel.
          No one is sure of the exact cause of depression in children or adults. There is some evidence for a biochemical predisposition, which may be triggered by specific experiences. Depression school age-children are children likely to lack social and academic competence, but it is not clear whether incompetence causes depression or vice versa. The parents or depressed children are more likely to be depressed themselves, suggesting a possible genetic factor, a reflection of general stress in ill families, or the result of poor parenting practices by disturbed parents.

Complaint           : keluhan
Address               : menunjukan
Accuse                  : menuduh
Stealing                : mencuri
Vow                       : berjanji
Features              : ciri-ciri
Suicide                  : bunuh diri
Appetite              : nafsu makan
Ailments              : penyakit
Trigger                  : menyebabkan
Vice versa           : sebaliknya
Predisposition   : kecenderungan


Masa Depresi

"Tidak ada yang suka padaku" adalah keluhan umum di masa kecil, ketika anak-anak cenderung sadar popularitas. Tetapi ketika kata-kata ini ditujukan kepada seorang kepala sekolah oleh anak laki-laki 8 - tahun di Florida, yang mana teman sekelasnya telah menuduhnya mencuri dari tas guru merupakan sinyal bahaya. Anak itu bersumpah bahwa ia tidak akan pernah kembali ke sekolah dan dia tidak pernah melakukannya. Dua hari kemudian, ia gantung diri oleh sabuk dari tempat tidur rel tidur.
Untungnya, anak-anak jarang mengambil jalan pintas seperti itu, meskipun bunuh diri di kalangan pemuda semakin meningkat. Bagaimana kita bisa membedakan antara masa tidak berbahaya dari “masa kesedihan” (yang kita semua alami kadang-kadang) dan gangguan afektif utama adalah, gangguan suasana hati? gejala utama dari gangguan afektif masa kecil yang mirip, fitur tertentu khusus untuk 9dsm usia III-R, 1987)
Tidak memiliki teman  hanya satu tanda depresi kanak-kanak. Gangguan ini juga ditandai dengan ketidakmampuan untuk bersenang-senang atau untuk berkonsentrasi, dan dengan dan tidak adanya reaksi emosional yang normal. Anak depresi sering lelah, sangat aktif, atau tidak aktif. Mereka bergerak sangat sedikit, banyak berdukacita, memiliki kesulitan berkonsentrasi, tidur terlalu banyak atau terlalu sedikit, kehilangan nafsu makan, mulai melakukan hal buruk di sekolah, tampak tidak bahagia, mengeluhkan penyakit fisik, merasa sangat bersalah, menderita kecemasan pemisahan berat (yang mungkin mengambil bentuk fobia sekolah), atau sering berpikir tentang kematian atau bunuh diri. Ada empat atau lima dari gejala-gejala ini dapat mendukung diagnosis depresi, terutama ketika mereka mewakili perubahan signifikan dalam pola kebiasaan anak. Orang tua tidak selalu mengenali masalah "kecil" seperti gangguan tidur, kehilangan nafsu makan dan lekas marah sebagai tanda-tanda depresi, tetapi anak-anak sendiri seringkali mampu menggambarkan apa yang mereka rasakan.
Tidak ada yang yakin penyebab pasti depresi pada anak-anak atau orang dewasa. Ada beberapa bukti biokimia tren, yang mungkin dipicu oleh pengalaman tertentu. Depresi-anak usia sekolah adalah anak-anak cenderung kurang kompetensi sosial dan akademik, tetapi tidak jelas apakah ketidakmampuan untuk menyebabkan depresi atau sebaliknya. Orang tua atau anak-anak depresi lebih mungkin menjadi tertekan diri mereka sendiri, menunjukkan faktor genetik mungkin, suatu refleksi dari stres umum dalam keluarga pasien atau hasil dari orangtua miskin oleh orang tua yang telah terganggu.

Exercise 1
     1.   What happens when 5-year old children say “No body likes me”?
          Answer: will show signs of childhood depression
     2. What happens when 10-year old children say “No body likes me”?
   Answer : be quiet and feel all the crimes against them 
    3. What will the children do when they get depression?
        Answer : start doing poorly in school, feel overwhelmingly guilty, suffer severe separation anxiety (which  may take the form of the school phobia), or think often about death or suicide.
     4.  Why do the children get depression?
         Answer : when he feels nobody likes him anymore
     5.  When the children are accused by their friend, will they get depression?
         Answer : when children tend to be popularity conscious
     6. What is (are) the symptom (s) of childhood depression?
         Answer : inability to have fun or to concentrate, and by and absence of normal emotional reactions
     7.  What happens to the parents when their children get depression?
         Answer : confused and feel responsible for what happened to her child

Exercise 2
Fill in the blank with the listed appropriate words.
Accuse, address, appetite, purse, vowed, triggered, feature, severe
1.  I am not manager. I am just a staff in this office. Don’t give your complaints to move because I can’t determine its follow-up. Please triggered your complaints to the manager.
2.  I really hate someone who accuse Me without a real evidence. Don’t think that I am a thief if you don’t have a proof. Don’t say that I am a coward if you don’t know much about me.
3.  She is a careful woman. She never puts her money in her pocket. She always puts it in hers purse Besides, she also puts it in the bag.
4. He has sacrificed his life for the woman he loves very much. But the woman, unfortunately, runs away with the order man. He really hates that women, even all of the women. He vowed Never to fall in love with the women.
5. Because of my sadness, I don’t have appetite I am not interested in food in front of me although it is very delicious. I don’t want to eat it 

Exercise 3

Make sentences from the words below

1. Predisposition              : He has a predisposition to minor ailments.
2. Feature                        :The use of bright colors is one of the features of her painting.
3. Triggered                     :The attack triggered a full scale war.
4. Symptoms                   : Abdominal pain is a symptom of appendicitis.
5. Depression                  : She was treated by the doctor for depression.
6. Harmless                     : Don't be frightened of that snake, it's harm less.
7. Severe                         :Our team suffered a severe defeat.
8. Disturb                        : I'm sorry am I disturbing you?
9. Complaint                   : He's always suffering from come complaint or other.
10. Disorder                   : The strike threw the whole country into disorder.


Depressed children rarely go to such lengths, thought suicide among young people is on the increase.

Rarely in this sentence is called and adverb of frequency. The others are usually, always, sometimes, never, often, seldom, occasionally, frequently, almost.

Exercise 4
Put the adverbs of frequency correctly into these sentences.

1. He (usually) smokes a cigarette after every meal.
2. Do they (ever) write to you?
3. (Sometimes) You can tell if a dog is dreaming by watching its legs .
4. I (usually) pass the post office on my way back .
5. The roof (occasionally) leaks when it rains .
6. This type of plants (never) grows tall.
7. It (hardly ever) rains in this part of the world .
8. Do you (often) answer back live this?
9. We (frequently) correspond through the post.
10. They invite us over (generally) for a cup of tea.
11. She is (usually) very busy at this time of the day.
12. Had the lesson (already) started when you arrived?
13. We have (nearly) finished our syllabus for a year .
14. Your friend (always) needs your help .
15. (sometimes) we are lazy to cook, so we eat out .
16. I (almost) tripped over the dog in the dark.

Exercise 5

Substitute a word always for the multi-word adverbial of frequency
Example : Mary drink milk all of the time.


1. John drink coffee some of the time.
    John always drinks coffee.
2. He almost never drinks tea.
    He almost always drinks tea.
3. Mr. Allen drink coffee much of the time.
    Mr. Allen always drinks coffee.
4. Mrs. Allen almost never drinks coffee
    Mrs. Allen almost never drink coffee.
5. She drinks coffee most of the time.
    She always drinks coffee.
6. Mr. and Mrs. Clinton eat in restaurant some of the time.
    Mr. and Mrs. Clinton always eat in restaurant.
7. Chessie almost never eats in restaurant.
    Chessie almost never eats in an restaurant.
8. Philip eats in bamboo restaurant all of the time.
    Philip always eats in bamboo restaurant.
9. She eats at home most of the time.
    She always eats at home.
10. Mr. and Mrs. Tanty eats in restaurant much of the time.
      Mr. and Mrs. Tanty always eats in a restaurant.

Minggu, 26 September 2010

simple sentences and complex sentences

A. Simple Sentences 

1. I watch television everyday
    S  V         O
2. I study everyday
    S   V       O
3. The world is round
           S            V
4. I write the text
    S  V        O
5. She eats meatball
     S     V     O
B. Complex Sentences

1. Although he has taken a bath, his still has itchy
2. If he is wealthy, he will travel around the world
3. Even though it rains, I still go to college
4. Although my sister has been sleeping all day, she was still sleepy
5. Although my brother loose the game, he was still excited

Sabtu, 18 September 2010

Social psychology

Social psychology

Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. By this definition, scientific refers to the empirical method of investigation. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors include all of the psychological variables that are measurable in a human being. The statement that others may be imagined or implied suggests that we are prone to social influence even when no other people are present, such as when watching television, or following internalized cultural norms.
Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations. In Kurt Lewin's famous heuristic formula, behavior can be viewed as a function of the person and the environment, B = f(P , E). In general, social psychologists have a preference for laboratory based, empirical findings. Social psychology theories tend to be specific and focused, rather than global and general.
Social psychology is an interdisciplinary domain that bridges the gap between psychology and sociology. During the years immediately following World War II, there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists. However, the two disciplines have become increasingly specialized and isolated from each other in recent years, with sociologists focusing on "macro variables" (e.g. social structure) to a much greater extent. Nevertheless, sociological approaches to social psychology remain an important counterpart to psychological research in this area.
In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists. As a broad generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena.See Group dynamics.

characteristic social psychology:

Kurt lewin
Born             : September 9, 1890
Died             : February 12, 1947 Newtonville, Massachusetts
Citizenship    :  Germany, United States
Fields           : Social Psychology
Institutions  : Institute for Social Research, Center for Group Dynamics (MIT), National Training Laboratories, Duke University

Name: Prof. Dr. Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono
Born : Purwokerto, 2 Pebruari 1944
Education : 
• SHS Bogor (1961)
• Bachelor of Psychology UI (1968)
• Diploma in community development., Univ. Edinburgh (1969) 
• Post-Graduate Psychology, Univ. Leiden (1973) UI 
• Doctor of Psychology (1978)

Interest : social problems, family planning, teens seksologi, "tembang kenangan".